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Apple mise sur la médecine prédictive via les objets connectés, vers une dictature des géants du Web ?

Ne vous y trompez pas, cette annonce – aux aspects quelques peu anodins- s’avère être au final d’une importance cruciale, laissant entrevoir la stratégie menée par les  les GAFA (Google, Apple, Facebook, Amazon). Stratégie révélée notamment par Marc Dugain dans son livre « l’Homme nu, la dictature invisible du numérique », pointant du doigt le pouvoir de ces géants du web, de l’informatique et des Big-Data.

Selon la chaîne américaine CNBC, Apple développe depuis plusieurs années, et dans le plus grand secret, une technique destinée à faciliter le suivi du diabète via des capteurs. Elle permettrait au diabétique de s’assurer de façon continue de son taux de glycémie tout en lui évitant de se piquer régulièrement le bout des doigts, comme l’en contraint la méthode actuelle. Selon CNBC – se basant sur trois sources anonymes – le projet s’inscrit dans un concept initié par Steve Jobs, l’ancien patron de la marque à la pomme, désormais décédé. Ce dernier envisageait d’utiliser des objets comme une montre connectée pour mesurer différents paramètres physiologiques, dont la glycémie.

Le projet disposerait d’une équipe dédiée composée d’une trentaine de personne début 2016 et basée à bonne distance – plusieurs kilomètres – du siège du groupe de Cupertino en vue de pouvoir maintenir la confidentialité.

CNBC affirme que le projet a vu sa concrétisation il y a plus de cinq ans. Selon la chaîne, il serait désormais suffisamment avancé pour qu’Apple procède à des essais de faisabilité tout en axant ses efforts sur les questions de régulation. La nouvelle technique employée se baserait notamment sur des capteurs optiques, mettant en œuvre les montres de type “Apple Watch” lancées en 2015.

Rappelons que de telles types de technologies sont d’ores et déjà explorés depuis plusieurs années par Google et sa maison mère, Alphabet. Cette dernière développe ainsi un projet de lentilles connectées avec le suisse Novartis. Fin 2016, elle a lancé une coentreprise avec le laboratoire Sanofi afin de concevoir des objets connectés pour suivre le diabète. L’émergence de telles techniques voient le jour alors qu’une concurrence de plus en plus rude met à mal les grands laboratoires.
La coentreprise Onduo mettra en commun les expertises de Sanofi et de Verily, la division santé d’Alphabet (ex Google), sans toutefois résoudre pour autant les difficultés de Sanofi et son produit star, le Lantus dont le brevet a expiré en 2015.  Onduo a annoncé pour sa part que des premiers produits devraient être commercialisés d’ici deux ou trois ans.

Installée à Boston, au cœur de la capitale mondiale des sciences de la vie, la coentreprise entend mettre à profit “l’expérience de Verily en matière d’électronique miniaturisée, de techniques analytiques et de développement de logiciels grand public” et le “savoir-faire et de l’expérience cliniques de Sanofi” pour proposer des traitements novateurs aux patients diabétiques. Sanofi apporte ainsi son expertise dans la pharmacie, Google son savoir-faire numérique, l’objectif commun étant de mieux soigner une pathologie touchant 442 millions de personnes dans le monde. Chaque entité apportant 250 millions de dollars.

Plus globalement, notons que les géants du Web que sont Google, Apple, Facebook et Amazon (GAFA) investissent massivement dans le secteur de la médecine prédictive. Avec des objectifs plus ou moins avoués … et avouables.

Or, de plus en plus analystes estiment – pour ne pas dire s’alarment – que la médecine curative actuelle (qui traite une maladie uniquement lorsque celle-ci s’est déclarée) pourrait être à moyen terme remplacée par une médecine prédictive s’appuyant sur des objets connectés.

En observant les travaux actuellement réalisés par les laboratoires de Google et en analysant les projections de Raymond C. Kurzweil, l’un de ses directeurs, “il n’est pas déraisonnable d’affirmer que les nombreuses morts liées, aujourd’hui, au cancer, aux maladies cardio-vasculaires, ou maladies dégénératives et bien d’autres maladies, devraient avoir presque totalement disparu à l’échéance d’une génération” estime même René Trégouët, rapporteur de la Recherche et Président/fondateur du Groupe de Prospective du Sénat. Et ce au sein des populations aisées, capables – financièrement parlant – d’être connectés en permanence, tout en alimentant parallèlement les bases de données gigantesques de leurs aimables « bienfaiteurs ».

Toujours selon René Trégouët “il suffira que quelques cellules dans un organisme soient atteintes par un cancer, alors qu’aujourd’hui il en faut des millions sinon des centaines de millions pour les déceler, pour qu’immédiatement le système automatisé” qui “surveille” (dans tous les sens du terme ? ) “ la santé de chacun avec des objets connectés vous conseillera (vous obligera ?) d’aller voir immédiatement un spécialiste“. Lequel devrait être alors à même de détruire ces cellules cancéreuses via des nanostructures, estiment même certains spécialistes. Il pourrait en être de même avec les maladies cardio-vasculaires et bien d’autres maladies, les objets connectés étant alors capables de détecter de faibles signaux de souffrance, indétectable avec nos outils actuels de surveillance et d’analyse. La mode des montres cardio pouvant alors constituée plus que des prémices d’une telle tendance, mais être bien plus une manière de familiariser les consommateurs à être connectés en permanence, et ce pour leur bien-être et leur santé, il va s’en dire …

Reste que parallèlement, les humains que nous sommes – encore ? – devront tout de même continuer à se battre pour découvrir toutes les solutions permettant de soigner de manière curative tous ceux qui n’auront pas pu ou pas voulu s’astreindre à la surveillance des objets connectés. Vaste défi – notamment financier – pour une Humanité qui aura atteint dans un demi-siècle près de 9 milliards de personnes.

Plus effrayant encore, précisons que forts de leur position dominante en matière d’hébergement de données sur le génome humain, les GAFA investissent massivement dans la génétique pour devenir des acteurs incontournables de la médecine prédictive. Faisant au passage de notre ADN tout à la fois un produit convoité et un bien marchand.

Alors que les progrès du séquençage du génome humain devraient permette de grandes avancées dans la recherche médicale, la connaissance de l’ADN pourrait permettre de détecter certaines maladies avant même qu’elles ne se soient déclarées. Une révolution scientifique dont les géants du web comptent bien ne pas être écartés. Dépassant largement leur rôle d’hébergeurs de données, ils souhaitent ainsi organiser la collecte des ADN de leurs utilisateurs, les mettre à disposition des chercheurs via des plates-formes dédiées, un de leurs objectifs pouvant être notamment de commercialiser des outils de diagnostic. Business is business …

Détrompez vous ! Il ne s’agit plus de science-fiction. Via le biais de sa société 23andme, Google s’est fait une place de choix dans le secteur de la génomique. Cette filiale commercialise d’ores et déjà en ligne des tests de salive capables de détecter le pourcentage de risques de développer certaines maladies et les mutations génétiques transmissibles à la descendance, comme la mucoviscidose.

Si en 2013, la FDA (Food and Drug Administration) l’a contraint de cesser son activité, 23andme a été de nouveau autorisée à distribuer ses kits d’analyse d’ADN en octobre 2015, avec un catalogue de pathologies limitées. La société disposerait déjà d’une base de données de plus d’un million d’ADN.

Facebook n’est pas en reste : via une collecte sous forme d’enquête baptisée « Gene for Good », 5000 échantillons de salive ont été récoltés auprès d’utilisateurs volontaires pour être étudiés et suivis par l’université du Michigan.

Or, rappelle (voire prévient ? ) le CRIP (Cercle de réflexion de l’industrie pharmaceutiques) , un génome humain équivaut à une centaine de gigaoctets de données brutes, des volumes que seuls les GAFA sont aujourd’hui capables de stocker. C’est donc en toute « logique » que l’Institut national du cancer américain a confié les données de son « Atlas du génome du cancer » aux plates-formes Amazon Web Service et Google Genomics … le tout pour 18 millions d’euros.

Les chercheurs pourront y calculer, analyser et partager des données sur l’ADN. Certains grands laboratoires pharmaceutiques sont d’ores et déjà clients de ces banques de données génomiques, pour améliorer la recherche médicamenteuse nous dit-on.

En utilisant Google Trends, des chercheurs australiens sont parvenus quant à eux à prédire la prévalence de maladies graves non transmissibles dans certaines régions. En analysant les recherches des internautes, il serait en effet possible de détecter les risques de cancer, d’accident vasculaire cérébral (AVC) ou de pathologies cardiaques. Une manière d’utiliser la – redoutable – efficacité des outils de Google pour pister, localiser et prédire l’expansion ….des épidémies de grippe ou autres maladies infectieuses.

L’équipe de recherche de l’Université de Deakin, en Australie prend comme postulat de travail que les requêtes par mots clés des internautes sont liées à leur comportement et leur mode de vie. Rechercher les horaires d’une salle de sport, se faire livrer des plats caloriques à domicile, se renseigner sur les symptômes et les conséquences de telle ou telle maladie, sont – selon eux – autant d’indices permettant de détecter les risques d’accident vasculaire, de maladie du cœur ou de cancer.

Les chercheurs ont utilisé Google Trends pour analyser les données de recherche sur une année et les ont ensuite comparées à celles du Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), lequel mesure la prévalence des maladies aux États-Unis grâce aux dépistages. Au final, leurs conclusions s’avèrent quasiment similaires. Ainsi, sur l’année 2011, la recherche basée sur Google Trends prédisait un taux de diabète de 9,4% dans le New Jersey, tandis que le CDC a compté 8,8% de diabétiques sur la même période.

Sources : CNBC, CRIP, RTFlash, Challenges

Elisabeth Studer – 15 avril 2017 – www.leblogfinance.com

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83 commentaires

  1. retrouvé le retour 17 avril 2017 à 11:50

    “concept initié par Steve Jobs, l’ancien patron de la marque à la pomme, désormais décédé. ”

    Il semble que la motivation de ce Monsieur dépassait la simple volonté de contrôle, un bon système de prédiction des cancer même venant de l’extérieur du ghetto anglo-saxon l’aurait certainement intéressé !!

    “une centaine de gigaoctets de données brutes, des volumes que seuls les GAFA sont aujourd’hui capables de stocker.”
    A bon les autres stockent sur des ordis à pédales ? On ne va pas tarder à voir car nous sommes sur branche pourrie par les usa !! voir les sources de ton article ES.

  2. Elisabeth Studer 17 avril 2017 à 22:11

    Un bracelet capteur de sueur pourrait révolutionner les diagnostics médicaux

    AFP17/04/2017

    Un bracelet capteur capable d’analyser très rapidement la sueur pourrait révolutionner les diagnostics médicaux et permettre un traitement plus efficace de pathologies comme la mucoviscidose ou le diabète.

    Ce capteur analyse les composants moléculaires de la sueur et transmet les résultats à un laboratoire, expliquent ses inventeurs à la faculté de médecine de l’Université de Stanford et de Berkeley en Californie, dont la recherche est publiée lundi dans les Comptes-rendus de l’Académie nationale américaine des sciences (PNAS). “C’est un énorme progrès”, juge le Dr Carlos Milla, professeur adjoint de pédiatrie à Stanford, l’un des principaux auteurs.

    A la différence des anciens capteurs, ce nouveau système ne requiert pas pour les patients de rester assis sans bouger pendant trente minutes, le temps que la sueur s’accumule dans les collecteurs. Ce processus très long, utilisé depuis de nombreuses décennies, est particulièrement pénible pour les jeunes enfants, pointent ces chercheurs.

    Ce nouveau capteur portable au poignet stimule les glandes sudoripares avec des micro-processeurs pour obtenir de la sueur en quelques minutes, avant de transmettre le contenu moléculaire, via un téléphone portable, à un serveur qui peut rapidement analyser les résultats. Ce système peut facilement être utilisé dans les pays en développement surtout dans des villages reculés dépourvus de centres médicaux.

    Le capteur peut ainsi détecter des ions de chlorure dans la sueur qui génèrent davantage de charge électrique. Plus la teneur de ce sel est élevée, plus la probabilité est grande que la personne souffre de mucoviscidose, précisent les chercheurs.

    Ce système peut aussi mesurer la teneur en glucose avec le même résultat qu’un test sanguin. Un taux élevé peut indiquer un risque de diabète. Ce capteur pourrait ainsi être utile pour surveiller la glycémie chez les personnes pré-diabétiques et diabétiques, expliquent les scientifiques.

    D’autres éléments moléculaires présents dans la sueur comme le sodium, le potassium et le lactate peuvent également être mesurés. “Ce système peut être utilisé pour mesurer virtuellement tout ce qui se trouve dans la sueur”, souligne Ronald Davis, professeur de biochimie et de génétique à l’Université de Stanford, l’un des principaux co-auteurs. “La sueur est bien adaptée à des applications portables et représente une source riche en informations médicales”, ajoute-t-il.
    Cette technologie peut s’avérer particulièrement utile pour personnaliser les traitements, selon le professeur Davis.

    L’équipe de recherche travaille actuellement à la préparation d’études cliniques étendues pour rechercher des corrélations entre les analyses de sueur réalisées avec ce capteur et l’état de santé en général.

  3. Elisabeth Studer 20 avril 2017 à 00:03

    Verily (Alphabet) va suivre 10.000 personnes pour prédire les maladies

    San Francisco – Verily, la filiale spécialisée dans la santé du géant internet américain Alphabet (Google), ambitionne de déterminer les signes avant-coureurs des maladies avec une étude de grande ampleur annoncée mercredi, qui va suivre environ 10.000 personnes durant plusieurs années.

    L’étude, baptisée “Project Baseline” et réalisée en partenariat avec les universités de Duke et Stanford, dit vouloir réaliser “une carte de la santé humaine” en accumulant un large éventail de données médicales, comportementales ou même génétiques sur les participants.

    Elle va notamment pour cela leur faire porter au quotidien un appareil connecté au poignet ainsi que d’autres capteurs. Le suivi passera aussi par des visites cliniques régulières ainsi que des questionnaires et enquêtes interactifs sur smartphones ou ordinateurs.

    Verily précise dans son communiqué qu’elle collectera des échantillons biologiques (sang, salive) et procèdera à toute une série de mesures afin de collecter des données cliniques, physiques, environnementales, moléculaires et génétiques, des images médicales et des informations fournies par les participants eux-mêmes.

    La société dit vouloir ainsi établir une base de données de référence “qui puisse être utilisée pour mieux comprendre la transition entre la bonne santé et la maladie, et identifier des facteurs de risques additionnels pour les maladies”.

    Elle dit notamment vouloir essayer de repérer des marqueurs biologiques avant-coureurs, signalant qu’une maladie cardiovasculaire ou un cancer est en train de se développer.

    Le recrutement des participants va commencer dans les prochains mois, et ils seront suivis pendant au moins quatre ans.

    Les informations collectées seront hébergées dans la plateforme de stockage de données en ligne (“cloud”) de Google, et Verily ambitionne à l’avenir de mettre des bases de données anonymisées à la disposition de chercheurs.

    Verily (ex-Google Life Science) avait été lancée officiellement comme société indépendante en 2015. Elle fait partie des grands paris futuristes qui ont été séparés du coeur de métier de Google et dépendent désormais directement de la holding du groupe, Alphabet, et elle est à ce jour l’un des rares d’entre eux à dégager des revenus.

    Verily travaille notamment sur le diabète avec le groupe pharmaceutique français Sanofi et elle a un autre partenariat dans la bioélectronique avec le britannique GlaxoSmithKline.

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