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Charlie Hebdo : quand Visa pour l’Image redoutait que nouveau modèle économique et concentration ne portent atteinte au pluralisme

Un sujet  qui raisonne tout particulièrement à nos oreilles en cette période sombre que celui abordé lors des rencontres de la SAIF (Société des Auteurs des arts visuels et de l’Image Fixe) qui se sont tenues à Perpignan le 4 septembre dernier lors d’une conférence organisée dans le cadre du festival Visa pour l’Image : « Confrontés à une dépossession de leurs images par les opérateurs de l’Internet, les photojournalistes peuvent-ils être encore garants du pluralisme ? »

Un thème aussi éthique que financier … qui démontre également l’enjeu que revêt pour la démocratie une presse diversifiée alors que lobbies et mega trusts sont tentées de faire leur loi, de dicter leurs messages, voire de nous manipuler via une forme de pensée unique. A moins que cela ne soit jamais fait.

Le risque ? Que ne se développe à terme une sorte de dictature de l’information, dont le but ultime serait de servir les intérêts des multi-nationales et des financiers qui en tirent les ficelles.

Un sujet, donc, loin d’être anodin, qui nous plonge dans les affres d’un monde évoqué par Jean-Christophe Rufin dans son livre Globalia,  que nous venons d’évoquer parallèlement, à la suite de l’attentat qui vient de frapper Charlie Hebdo, et bien au delà, la France.

Constatant que paradoxalement, depuis plus de dix ans, la valeur de la photographie n’a cessé de décroître alors que le monde dans lequel nous vivons nous abreuve voire nous bombarde d’images, Olivier Brillanceau et Pierre Garçon, hauts responsables de la SAIF, s’étaient alors alarmés de la mise en place de cette « nouvelle économie » qui participe selon eux à « une banalisation de l’image et à une expropriation de son auteur », et finalement à un déni du travail des photojournalistes.

Pour tenter de comprendre quelles sont les causes à l’origine de ce phénomène, plusieurs pistes ont été invoquées : l’émergence d’Internet, la diffusion par des acteurs du marché de l’image de photographies à bas prix. La mise à disposition gratuite au public d’œuvres par des acteurs du Net.

Certains l’affirment haut et clair : la situation actuelle pourrait être en grande partie issue de la stratégie déployée par le géant Google. Les membres de la SAIF déplorent ainsi que Google Images soit « devenue la première banque mondiale d’images, sans autorisation et sans rémunération des auteurs, indexant toutes les images existantes sur le Net ».

Selon eux, cette « captation » de valeur par « des gens qui ne produisent pas » prive les créateurs de leur activité. Pire encore, à ce compte, les nombreux diplômes issus de brillantes écoles risquent de se retrouver sans avenir … et le secteur privé de l’esprit critique – voire moins docile – de la jeunesse.

L’absence de pluralisme liée à la concentration du pouvoir financier pourrait si nous n’y prenons garde nous conduire vers une « unicité et uniformisation de l’illustration et des témoignages », pour ne pas dire pensée unique … aux frontières de la dictature. Dictature financière, certes, mais dictature tout de même, faisant de nous des consommateurs, et électeurs manipulés par les medias de masse aux services des intérêts d’un petit nombre d’acteurs très puissants. L’oligarchie mise en avant  par Jean-Christophe Rufin dans son livre Globalia …. ?  Une théorie qu’on ne peut rejeter  par facilité ou par peur de la vérité, car émanant tout de même  de l’ancien Ambassadeur de France au Sénégal. Qui sait donc de quoi il parle ….

Le danger est d’ores et déjà à nos portes puisque la baisse des budgets publicitaires des entreprises a conduit à une diminution des commandes auprès des photo-journalistes, écrivais-je en septembre 2014. Désormais, notent les organisateurs de la conférence, « la plupart des grands conflits ne sont couverts uniquement que par quelques grandes agences ». Sans aucune garantie d’objectivité … et alors même que parmi l’une de ces sociétés figure Getty Images … détenu en grande partie par Carlyle, le sulfureux fonds de pension US.

Elisabeth Studer www.leblogfinance.com  - 10 janvier 2015

Crédits Photos : Elisabeth STUDER

A lire également :

.  Visa pour l’Image / Grèce : jusqu’où nous mène la folie financière de Goldman Sachs

. Getty Images porte plainte contre Microsoft pour violation massive de copyright

. Visa pour l’Image : le monde de la finance pourrait sonner le glas du photo-journalisme

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100 commentaires

  1. retrouvé le retour 11 janvier 2015 à 01:15

    Il existerait un avant et un après ! Non on connait déjà ce coup, avant et après seront identiques et on aura toujours besoin d’Hara kiri. Pardon de Charlie kiri. Hara est mort de la censure.

  2. retrouvé le retour 11 janvier 2015 à 01:28

    ES, il manquait un journal à ton palmarès. Attention, c’est du concentré:

    http://www.ladepeche.pf/Tubuai-le-trentenaire-menace-les-employes-municipaux-avec-deux-fusils-harpon_a2575.html

    Couper l’eau a quelqu’un qui probablement ne suce que des bouteilles de bière, encore une idée folle !!

  3. ES 24 mars 2015 à 20:19

    Facebook cherche à récupérer les articles des journaux américains
    HOME ECONOMIE HIGH-TECH
    Par Jules Darmanin Publié le 24/03/2015 à 13:37

    Côte à côte, le révéré New York Times, fondé en 1851, et Buzzfeed, le pure player d’informations virales créé en 2006. Tous deux, ainsi que quelques autres médias, négocient avec Facebook un partenariat qui fut longtemps une arlésienne: l’hébergement de leurs articles directement sur la plateforme de Facebook.
    C’est un article du New York Times lui-même qui révèle l’information. Dans les prochains mois, le réseau social, qui frise les 900 millions d’utilisateurs quotidiens, pourrait proposer des articles et des vidéos du quotidien américain ou de National Geographic sur son site ou dans son application mobile.
    Facebook est un gros pourvoyeur de trafic sur Internet, devancé, de moins en moins largement, par le moteur de recherche Google. En février 2014, le site viral Buzzfeed a annoncé que les visites sur son site provenaient davantage de Facebook que de Google. En permettant l’hébergement de contenus de médias, le réseau social plaide que cela permettra une meilleure expérience de lecture et un temps plus rapide de chargement, une donnée importante lorsqu’il s’agit de retenir la volatile attention des internautes.
    Relation de dépendance

    Comme dans toutes les relations de dépendance, les médias sont à la fois tentés par la force d’attraction de Facebook et méfiants face à son pouvoir. Si les médias hébergent leur contenu sur Facebook, cela signifie qu’ils doivent déléguer tout ou partie de leur régie publicitaire au réseau social. On ne connaît pas encore précisément les modalités publicitaires des partenariats dévoilés par le New York Times.
    Les médias et Facebook ne font pas jeu égal dans ces négociations. Tous les médias en ligne ont besoin de Facebook, mais Facebook n’a pas besoin de tous les médias en ligne. Avec un simple changement d’algorithme, que le réseau social garde secret, il peut favoriser un certain type de contenu au détriment d’un autre. Certains médias ont d’ailleurs constaté une baisse de leur trafic en provenance de Facebook lorsque le site a commencé à mettre en avant les vidéos directement téléchargées sur la plateforme, qui génèrent de plus forts revenus publicitaires.
    Les groupes de presse sont donc loin de se jeter tête baissée dans un partenariat avec le réseau social de Mark Zuckerberg. Le New York Times cite notamment des employés du Guardian qui seraient plus favorables à une coalition de médias pour avoir un poids plus important dans les tractations avec Facebook. La crainte sous-jacente est qu’à terme, les entreprises de presse soient réduites à des producteurs de contenus pour les réseaux sociaux, une perspective repoussante pour un grand nombre d’entre elles.
    Garder les lecteurs mobiles sur les applications

    Fin 2011, Facebook avait proposé un «social reader» aux titres de presse, qui leur permettait de développer leur propre application à l’intérieur de Facebook. Cette initiative a été tuée par Facebook lui-même au bout d’un an.
    Facebook n’est pas la première entreprise du web à proposer aux médias d’héberger leurs contenus. C’est une pratique vieille comme AOL: la plateforme emblématique de l’Internet des années 90 hébergeait déjà des contenus médiatiques, par exemple de National Geographic. Un média qui fait désormais des partenariats avec Facebook, mais aussi Snapchat. Le service de messagerie a lancé en janvier dernier sa plateforme Discover, regroupant une douzaine de médias qui produisent du contenu taillé sur mesure pour Snapchat.
    Avec le progrès constant de la consommation d’infos sur mobile, les applications comme Facebook ou Snapchat sont de plus en plus enclines à garder leurs utilisateurs sur leur écosystème. Pour Facebook, il s’agit aussi de récupérer des données supplémentaires sur leurs utilisateurs pour faire de la publicité encore mieux ciblée.
    Les types de partenariats sont très différents d’une plateforme à l’autre, sur des sites comme Yahoo! News ou MSN Actualités. Cela peut relever de la vente d’articles, de l’apport de trafic ou, parfois, du partage de revenus publicitaires.

  4. Elisabeth Studer 2 décembre 2015 à 02:00
  5. Elisabeth S 27 avril 2016 à 13:51

    Getty Images dépose une plainte contre Google

    Bruxelles – L’agence de photos Getty a déposé plainte mercredi contre Google auprès de la Commission européenne pour pratiques anticoncurrentielles, reprochant notamment au moteur de recherche de promouvoir le piratage.

    Getty se joint ainsi aux poursuites engagées en 2015 par Bruxelles contre le moteur de recherche américain pour abus de position dominante dans la recherche sur l’internet. La Commission européenne a lancé récemment une nouvelle offensive contre le géant américain, avec cette fois dans son viseur le système d’exploitation Android.

    Un porte-parole de la Commission européenne a confirmé mercredi avoir reçu la plainte de Getty, qu’elle va examiner. Sollicité par l’AFP, Google n’a pas souhaité faire de commentaires dans l’immédiat.

    La plainte de Getty Image se concentre particulièrement sur les changement effectués en 2013 sur Google Images, le moteur de recherche pour images de Google, qui ont non seulement affecté l’activité de licences d’images de Getty Images mais aussi les créateurs de contenus dans le monde entier, en créant des galeries (…) de contenus de haute résolution sous droit d’auteurs, affirme l’agence dans un communiqué.

    Dans la mesure où la consommation d’image est immédiate, une fois que l’image est diffusée en haute résolution, en grand format, il y a peu d’incitation à aller voir l’image sur le site dont il provient à l’origine, ajoute l’agence.

    Les changements effectués en 2013 ont notamment promu le piratage, conduisant à une large infraction des droits d’auteurs en transformant les utilisateurs en pirates accidentels, regrette l’agence qui affirme représenter plus de 200.000 photojournalistes, créateurs de contenus et artistes.

    Les artistes ont besoin de gagner leur vie afin de maintenir leur créativité et les droits de licence sont essentiels à cet égard, a commenté le responsable juridique de Getty Images Yoko Miyashita. Cela n’est pas possible si Google siphonne le trafic et crée un environnement dans lequel il peut revendiquer les profits générés par les créations de particuliers, a-t-il ajouté.

    Getty critique la réponse que lui aurait faite Google: accepter sa présentation des images en haute résolution ou sortir de la recherche (…) ce qui reviendrait à devenir invisible sur Internet.

    Le service Google Images avait déjà fait l’objet d’une plainte en 2013 déposée par le Cepic (Centre of the Picture Industry), un groupe d’intérêt qui fédère des centaines d’agences de photographie et de banques d’images en Europe, comme Getty Images et Corbis.

    Cette plainte survient alors qu’aux Etats-Unis, selon le Wall Street Journal, l’autorité de la concurrence, la FTC, s’intéresse tout comme la Commission à Google pour savoir si le groupe de Mountain View abuse de la position dominante de son système d’exploitation mobile Android pour tenter de privilégier ses propres services.

    La semaine dernière, l’autorité canadienne de la concurrence a classé sans suite son enquête sur la publicité en ligne de Google, indiquant que le géant de l’Internet avait modifié ses pratiques suite à ses demandes.

    jum-liu/fz/sl/pre

    GOOGLE

    (©AFP / 27 avril 2016 11h57)

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