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Espagne / allocation chômage : contributions d’attribution plus restrictives

banner_bolsa_trabajo.jpgUne rentrée qui s’annonce bien mal pour les Espagnols.

Alors que le pays affiche un taux de chômage phénoménal, le gouvernement a annoncé lundi qu’il comptait restreindre les conditions d’attribution des allocations chômage. Objectif affiché: inciter à la recherche d’emploi … alors que le pays se voit contraint à des restrictions budgétaires sans précédent rajouterons-nous toutefois …

Le délai pendant lequel un chômeur peut refuser des offres d’emploi et de formation tout en touchant une allocation sera réduit “de 90 à 30 jours“, a déclaré à la radio Cadena Ser le ministre du Travail Celestino Corbacho.

Si quelqu’un refuse des formations ou des offres d’emploi il est dans une situation incompatible avec l’allocation chômage“, a-t-il ajouté. “Nous ne pouvons pas continuer avec un taux de chômage qui est le double de (la moyenne en) UE“, a-t-il estimé. “Les chômeurs doivent se réorienter et les agences de l’emploi doivent avoir un rôle plus actif”.

C’est clair, si certes, comme partout les fraudeurs doivent exister, l’Etat semble désormais vouloir faire porter toute la responsabilité de la très alarmante situation actuelle sur les demandeurs de l’emploi, l’état de l’économie espagnole semblant à l’en croire totalement étranger à l’affaire.

Mais notons tout de même au passage que l’efficacité des services publics de l’emploi est souvent critiquée au delà des Pyrénées.

Selon le journal économique Cinco Dias de lundi, ces services n’ont joué un rôle que dans 2,9% des embauches survenues entre janvier et juillet, les agences de travail temporaire en gérant parallèlement 12,9%.

Le chef du gouvernement socialiste José Luis Rodriguez Zapatero s’est engagé à les réformer cet automne, “pour augmenter leur capacité à marier les demandes et les offres”.

Parallèlement, une réforme du marché du travail, qui réduit notamment les indemnités de licenciement, devrait être approuvée prochainement.

Le gouvernement a également réduit le nombre de bénéficiaires de l’aide mensuelle de 426 euros aux chômeurs en fin de droit, excluant désormais les 30-45 ans sans enfants.

Toutefois, cette aide a été prolongée à la mi-août pour six mois, pour la deuxième fois consécutive.

Début août, José Luis Rodriguez Zapatero, s’était dit “convaincu” que la reprise économique aurait un effet positif sur le nombre de chômeurs en juillet, concédant toutefois que “pour réduire ce niveau de chômage, il faudra créer beaucoup d’emplois”.

Parallèlement, le ministère du Travail espagnol avait annoncé que si le taux de chômage avait atteint récemment des sommets, il afficherait toutefois un recul en juillet et ce, pour le quatrième mois consécutif. Des chiffres en contradiction avec ceux fournis la semaine précédente par l’Institut national de la statistique (INE).

Si l’on en croit le ministère, le nombre de demandeurs d’emplois s’élèverait à 73.790 personnes en juillet, soit une baisse de 1,85% par rapport à juin. Selon un communiqué officiel, le nombre de chômeurs s’établirait désormais à 3,9 millions. En valeur glissante annuelle, ce chiffre serait toutefois en hausse de 10,28% (correspondant à 364.483 chômeurs supplémentaires). Le chômage connaît “sa plus forte baisse au mois de juillet depuis 1998″, se félicitait néanmoins le ministère du Travail.

L’Institut national de la statistique – lequel emploie des méthodes de calcul différentes – avait annoncé – au contraire – que le taux de chômage avait continué de progresser au deuxième trimestre, pour atteindre 20,09% de la population active, contre 20,05% trois mois plus tôt.

Cette guerre des chiffres intervient quelques jours après l’approbation par les députés espagnols d’une réforme contestée du droit du travail. Laquelle vise à diminuer le chômage en réduisant la dualité entre les contrats à durée indéterminée et les contrats précaires en nombre croissant.

Le gouvernement espagnol souhaite notamment importer le modèle dit “autrichien”,  via la création d’un fonds pour chaque employé, lequel aura pour but de réduire les indemnités versées par l’employeur en cas de licenciement. Madrid veut également faciliter le recours aux licenciements économiques prévoyant en contrepartie de limiter à deux ans la durée de certains contrats à durée déterminée.

Sources : rp, AWP, AFP

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18 commentaires

  1. Dadounet 24 août 2010 à 14:50

    Réduire le chômage par le départ des immigrés non européens ?
    Jamais, dit l’oligarchie, trop contente d’avoir des larbins à sa merci !

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