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Espagne : guerre des chiffres pour un vertigineux taux de chômage

Elisabeth Studer Economie 26 commentaires

Oficina-de-empleo.JPGEnfin une bonne nouvelle pour l’Espagne ? Si son taux de chômage a atteint récemment des sommets, il afficherait toutefois un recul en juillet et ce, pour le quatrième mois consécutif. C’est en tout cas ce qu’affirme le ministère du Travail espagnol, publiant des chiffres en contradiction avec ceux fournis la semaine dernière par l’Institut national de la statistique (INE).

Si l’on en croit le ministère, le nombre de demandeurs d’emplois s’élèverait à 73.790 personnes en juillet, soit une baisse de 1,85% par rapport à juin.

Selon un communiqué officiel, le nombre de chômeurs s’établirait désormais à 3,9 millions. En valeur glissante annuelle, ce chiffre serait toutefois en hausse de 10,28% (correspondant à 364.483 chômeurs supplémentaires).

Le chômage connaît “sa plus forte baisse au mois de juillet depuis 1998“, se félicite néanmoins le ministère du Travail.

Vendredi, l’Institut national de la statistique – lequel emploie des méthodes de calcul différentes – avait annoncé – au contraire – que le taux de chômage avait continué de progresser au deuxième trimestre, pour atteindre 20,09% de la population active, contre 20,05% trois mois plus tôt.

Si l’on en croit les analystes, une partie de cette augmentation serait due à l’augmentation de la population active, une baisse du nombre de demandeurs d’emplois ayant pu être observée ces derniers mois.

Durant le mois de juillet, le nombre de chômeurs aurait ainsi baissé de 43.023 chez les hommes et de 30.767 chez les femmes. Chez les moins de 25 ans – segment le plus touché avec un taux de chômage de 42,1% au deuxième trimestre – 15.976 chômeurs en moins ont pu être enregistrés.

Quoi qu’il en soit, l’Espagne partage désormais avec la Lettonie le titre de champion du chômage de l’Union européenne … Une médaille d’or dont elle se passerait bien.

Vendredi, le chef du gouvernement socialiste, José Luis Rodriguez Zapatero, s’était dit “convaincu” que la reprise économique aurait un effet positif sur le nombre de chômeurs en juillet, concédant toutefois que “pour réduire ce niveau de chômage, il faudra créer beaucoup d’emplois”.

 

Cette guerre des chiffres intervient quelques jours après l’approbation par les députés espagnols d’une réforme contestée du droit du travail. Laquelle vise à diminuer le chômage en réduisant la dualité entre les contrats à durée indéterminée et les contrats précaires en nombre croissant.

Le gouvernement espagnol souhaite notamment importer le modèle dit “autrichien”, via la création d’un fonds pour chaque employé, lequel aura pour but de réduire les indemnités versées par l’employeur en cas de licenciement.

Madrid veut également faciliter le recours aux licenciements économiques prévoyant en contrepartie de limiter à deux ans la durée de certains contrats à durée déterminée.

Sources : AFP, Reuters, Rtlinfo.be

 

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. Espagne : le solaire victime du déficit budgétaire

 

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26 commentaires

  1. Elisabeth Studer 7 octobre 2010 à 23:07

    Espagne: la justice remet en cause la baisse des salaires des fonctionnaires
    AFP | 07.10.10 | 16h01
    La justice espagnole a remis en cause, jeudi, la baisse des salaires des fonctionnaires décidé par le gouvernement socialiste en s’interrogeant sur le caractère “constitutionnel” de la mesure, a-t-on appris de source judiciaire.
    “Nous avons des doutes sur la constitutionnalité (…) de l’article 1 du décret daté du 20 mai, par lequel ont été adoptées des mesures extraordinaires pour la réduction du déficit public”, a écrit la haute instance judiciaire Audience nationale dans une décision que l’AFP a eu copie.
    Les magistrats de l’Audience estiment que le décret du gouvernement socialiste, instaurant une baisse moyenne de 5% des salaires des fonctionnaire, “pourrait affecter le contenu essentiel du droit de liberté syndical” car les négociations collectives sur ces baisses n’ont pas été respectées.
    Ils expriment aussi leur préoccupation quant à la “possible atteinte au contenu essentiel du droit à l’égalité” puisqu’une mesure additionnelle au décret “exclut de cette réduction (des salaires, ndlr) le personnel non-dirigeant des entreprises publiques Renfe, Adif et Aena”.
    Les magistrats de la haute instance ont ainsi jugé recevable la démarche de plusieurs grands syndicats pour contester les baisses de salaire.
    S’ouvre maintenant une période de dix jours pendant lesquels les parties impliquées et le ministère publique pourront se prononcer sur le sujet.
    Le gouvernement du socialiste José Luis Rodriguez Zapatero avait décidé en mai dernier de réduire les rétributions du personnel du secteur public d’une moyenne de 5% à partir de juin 2010, et de les geler en 2011.
    Cette baisse des salaires faisait partie d’un plan d’austérité visant accélérer la réduction des déficits publics qui avaient explosé à 11,2% du PIB en 2009.

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